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*Global Affairs: Citing Sources

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APA Style is frequently used for research in Social Sciences and/or Natural Sciences.

Chicago Style is most often used for research in History, Humanities and Social Sciences as well.

MLA Style is most commonly used to cite sources within the Language Arts, Cultural Studies and other Humanities disciplines.

 

Chicago Style Help

GENERAL CMOS GUIDELINES

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers.
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide.
      • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.

SUPPLEMENTAL TURABIAN STYLE GUIDELINES

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).

MAJOR PAPER SECTIONS

TITLE PAGE
  • According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.
  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8th ed.].
MAIN BODY
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
communication. And these enwrap each individual life
decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding
of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
These assemblages which entail the securitization of
identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
relays and relations. (246)

REFERENCES
Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries.
    • For two to three authors, write out all names.
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
    • Write out publishers’ names in full.
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
    • If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

CMOS Example

 

Chicago Manual of Style

APSA Style

APSA style generally follows Chicago Manual of Style's author-date citation practice. It requires parenthetical references within the text of the paper and a list of references at the end. 

 

 

 

 

Citation Help

Citation Videos - Chicago

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