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The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, known as the Kerner Commission after its chair, Governor Otto Kerner, Jr. of Illinois, was a Presidential Commission established by President Lyndon B. Johnson in an Executive Order to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots and to provide future recommendations.
Historians have devoted surprisingly little attention to African American urban history of the postwar period, especially compared with earlier decades. Correcting this imbalance, African American Urban History since World War II features an exciting mix of seasoned scholars and fresh new voices whose combined efforts provide the first comprehensive assessment of this important subject. Includes sections on Philadelphia.
America's Growing Inequality presents the links between racism and poverty in the United States, highlighting the work of social justice organizations to facilitate an end to their presence in society.
The encyclopedia is designed to provide reference material and an introduction to historical and contemporary race and crime topics. It supports study, research, and instruction by presenting brief overviews and references to more in-depth presentations in other published sources. ... The encyclopedia includes entries related to race and crime that are organized in the Reader's Guide as follows: Biographies, Cases, Concepts and Theories, Corrections, Courts, Drugs, Juvenile Justice, Media, Organizations, Police, Public Policy, Race Riots, Specific Populations, Violence and Crime.
This book examines the evolution of the concept of community policing and the theory of broken windows (introduced by James Q. Wilson and George Kelling in a 1982 Atlantic Monthly article). The work makes policy recommendations for the future of policing in a post-September 11 world.
The police shooting of an unarmed young black man in the St. Louis, Missouri, suburb of Ferguson earlier this year sparked riots and the beginning of a national conversation on race and policing. Much of that conversation has focused more on social issues. Malcolm Sparrow, who teaches at Harvard's Kennedy School and is a former British police detective, argues in this new book that there is another dimension that played a role not only in Ferguson but in many other high-profile police killings of unarmed blacks: the character of policing itself.
Recent years have brought public mourning to the heart of American politics, as exemplified by the spread and power of the Black Lives Matter movement, which has gained force through its identification of pervasive social injustices with individual losses. The deaths of Sandra Bland, Michael Brown, Freddie Gray, Trayvon Martin, Tamir Rice, Walter Scott, and so many others have brought private grief into the public sphere.
Many American communities, especially the working and middle class, are facing chronic problems: fiscal stress, urban decline, environmental sprawl, failing schools, mass incarceration, political isolation, disproportionate foreclosures, and severe public health risks. In The Price of Paradise, David Dante Troutt argues that it is a lack of what he calls 'regional equity' in our local decision making that has led to this looming crisis now facing so many cities and local governments.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion 1831
Nathanial “Nat” Turner (1800-1831) was an enslaved man who led a slave rebellion in Virginia in August 1831. With six others he killed the Travis family and enlisted about 75 other enslaved people in an insurrection that resulted in the murder of 51 white people. Afterwards Turner hid nearby for six weeks until his capture and hanging along with 16 of his followers.
In August 1831, in Southampton County, Virginia, Nat Turner led a bloody uprising that took the lives of some fifty-five white people--men, women, and children--shocking the South. Nearly as many black people, all told, perished in the rebellion and its aftermath. Nat Turner and the Rising in Southampton County presents important new evidence about the violence and the community in which it took place, shedding light on the insurgents and victims and reinterpreting the most important account of that event, The Confessions of Nat Turner.
Nat Turner's name rings through American history with a force all its own. Leader of the most important slave rebellion on these shores, variously viewed as a murderer of unarmed women and children, an inspired religious leader, a fanatic--this puzzling figure represents all the terrible complexities of American slavery. And yet we do not know what he looked like, where he is buried, or even whether Nat Turner was his real name.
Perhaps no other moment in history crystallized the fears of slave owners in the South like the August 21-22, 1831, slave insurrection led by Nat Turner in Southampton, Virginia. 'The Confessions of Nat Turner' details Turner's life and the events surrounding that armed revolt, which left more than fifty men, women, and children dead and that culminated in Turner's execution.
The Confessions of Nat Turner by William Styron
Historical fiction: The Confessions of Nat Turner is narrated by Nat himself as he lingers in jail through the cold autumnal days before his execution. The compelling story ranges over the whole of Nat's Life, reaching its inevitable and shattering climax that bloody day in August.
The Civil Rights movement that emerged in the United States after World War II was a reaction against centuries of racial discrimination. In this sweeping history of the Civil Rights movement in Atlanta--the South's largest and most economically important city--from the 1940s through 1980, Tomiko Brown-Nagin shows that the movement featured a vast array of activists and many sophisticated approaches to activism.
A violent clash haunts American race relations for nearly a century.
East St. Louis, Illinois 1917
The East St. Louis riots or East St. Louis massacres in Illinois were a series of outbreaks of labor and race-related violence that caused the deaths of an estimated 40–250 African Americans in late May and early July 1917. Another 6,000 blacks were left homeless and the rioting and vandalism cost approximately $400,000 ($7,982,000 in 2020) in property damage. In the July 1917 episode in particular there white-led violence throughout the city. The riots are considered the worst case of labor-related violence in 20th-century American history. African Americans had begun what is called the Great Migration from the rural Southern states seeking better work and education in the North away from a climate of lynching. Racial tensions that already existed in East St. Louis began to increase in February, 1917 when 470 African American workers were hired to replace white workers who had gone on strike against the Aluminum Ore Company. There are several differing accounts of the tipping point of the violence that began the violence. One cites a report heard that an African American man had robbed a white man. Another account is of a car driven by whites firing into an African American crowd followed by a different car with white police and reporters in it being shot at by African Americans.
blackpast.org JUNE 1, 2008 Contributed by Tabitha Wang
Tulsa Massacre 1921
The Tulsa (Oklahoma) race massacre of 1921 took place on May 31 and June 1, 1921. It is also called the Tulsa race riot, the Greenwood Massacre, or the Black Wall Street Massacre. Mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses. There are contradicting estimates of fatalities and injuries. Tulsa's 'Black Wall Street' in early 1900s featured luxury shops, restaurants, movie theaters, a library, pool halls and nightclubs. The massacre began over Memorial Day weekend after 19-year-old Dick Rowland, an African American who shined shoes was accused of assaulting Sarah Page, the 17-year-old white elevator operator. A final report by a 2001 Oklahoma Commission suggests that Rowland had a simple accident, such as tripping and steadying himself against the girl, or perhaps they had a quarrel.
December 18, 2007 Contributed by: Stephanie Christensen blackpast.org
The Tulsa Race Riot by Ph.D Harris, Duchess and A. R. Carser
In 1921, a race riot erupted in Tulsa, Oklahoma. White residents burned down black-owned businesses and homes. They killed approximately 300 African Americans. The Tulsa Race Riot explores the story and legacy of one of the worst race riots in US history. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject.
The Rosewood Massacre was a racially motivated massacre of African American people and destruction of their town. It took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Florida with a death toll of 27 to 150. The town of Rosewood was destroyed. Contemporary news reports characterized this as a race riot.
This book explores how digital technologies are revealing fresh information regarding the tragic history of Rosewood, Florida, and demonstrates how racial violence in the past relates to social inequality in the present.
Detroit Race Riot 1943
The 1943 Detroit race riot happened in Detroit, Michigan from the evening of June 20 through the early morning of June 22. This was during a period of a large and fast population increase which caused social tensions. This was during World War II and Detroit's automotive industry had been converted to the war effort employing large groups of people.
Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University.
Posted June 12th, 2012 by jruss
Fort Pillow 1964
At the Fort Pillow Massacre in Tennessee on April 12, 1864 some 300 African-American Union soldiers were killed This was one of the most controversial events of the American Civil War. Most of the Union garrison surrendered, and should have been taken as prisoners of war. Instead the African-American Union soldiers were killed by the Confederates.
This provocative study proves the existence of a de facto Confederate policy of giving no quarter to captured black combatants during the Civil War-killing them instead of treating them as prisoners of war. Rather than looking at the massacres as a series of discrete and random events, this work examines each as part of a ruthless but standard practice.
Columbia Ave., North Philadelphia Race Riots 1964
On August 28, 1964, an African America couple, Rush and Odessa Bradford, were having a domestic dispute while driving through the intersection of 22nd Street and Colombia Avenue in North Philadelphia, Odessa Bradford came to an abrupt stop in the intersection, interrupting normal traffic flow. The Bradfords were approached by African American police officer Robert Wells and white police officer John Hoff. Odessa Bradford and Officer Wells argued after she allegedly refused to follow his commands. Officier Wells then dragged Bradford out of her car and arrested her. Bystanders who believed the police had used excessive force against a woman immediately attacked the officers. A false rumor quickly spread that a pregnant black woman had been beaten and killed by the police. Before the officers could leave the scene, hundreds of people arrived and began throwing bricks, bottles, and other projectiles at the them. The rioting that began that Friday continued throughout the weekend. White owned businesses were vandalized and looted. By the end of the rioting on Sunday two people had been killed and 350 were wounded. Over 1,000 people were arrested and many others were beaten by police. Damage to the establishments on Columbia Avenue totaled approximately $4 million.
Temple University website devoted to civil rights struggles in Philadelphia
Through a range of photographs, newspapers, manuscripts, film footage, and oral histories, Civil Rights in a Northern City: Philadelphia seeks to highlight the key people, places, and events that made Philadelphia an important part of the national struggle for racial equality and social change..The Columbia Ave.Race Riots are one of the focuses of the collection
Posted on December 7, 2017 Contributed by: Suyent Rodriguez Candeaux
Watts, Los Angeles 1965
The Watts riots, also referred to as the Watts Rebellion, took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California from August 11 to 16,1965. Marquette Frye, an African-American on parole for robbery, was pulled over for alleged drunk driving. A roadside argument broke out. This escalated into a fight with police. It was thought that the police had hurt a pregnant woman. (A similiar report was heard in the Columbia Ave., Philadelphia Riots in 1964) Six days of civil unrest followed. The California National Guard was called in to help suppress the disturbance. At the end there were 34 deaths and over $40 million in property damage.
Comparing African-American and mainstream US newspaper coverage of some of the most important racial crises of the post-war period, this text argues that a strong African-American press is still needed today.
Newark, New Jersey 1967
The Newark, New Jersey riots took place between July 12 and July 17 in 1967 during what was termed “The Long Hot Summer of 1967”. There was over the four days of rioting, looting, and property destruction. Twenty-six people died and hundreds were injured. The incident that began the Newark riots happened during the early evening of July 12, 1967. An African American taxi driver was beaten and arrested by two white police officers for a minor traffic infraction in Newark’s Central Ward area. Originally the protesters gathered at the police station thought that the man being held had died from the beating.
For the first time in forty years, the story of one of America's most maligned cities is told in all its grit and glory. With its open-armed embrace of manufacturing, Newark, New Jersey, rode the Industrial Revolution to great prominence and wealth that lasted well into the twentieth century. In the postwar years, however, Newark experienced a perfect storm of urban troubles--political corruption, industrial abandonment, white flight, racial conflict, crime, poverty.
Looks at the 2002 Newark mayoral race between Cory Booker and the more established black incumbent Sharpe James, which articulated how moderate black politicians are challenging civil rights veterans for power.
Detroit Race Riot 1967
The 1967 Detroit Riot, also called the 12th Street Riot, is considered the bloodiest incident in the infamous The Long Hot Summer of 1967. It began in the early morning hours of Sunday July 23, 1967, in Detroit Michigan with confrontations between black residents and the Detroit Police Department. The event that began it was a police raid of an unlicensed, after-hours bar in the city's Near West Side. This was one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in American history, lasting five days.
The Detroit Riot of 1967 marked a turning point in the attitudes and behaviour of people in all walks of life in the Border Cities. As the citizens of Windsor watched their nearest neighbour burn, the way they felt about Detroit changed radically.
Riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968
Riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968 swept the United States. This was the greatest wave of social unrest the United States had experienced since the Civil War. Some of the biggest riots took place in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Chicago and Kansas City. This resulted in 43 deaths, thousands of arrests and millions of dollars of property damage.
By Lorraine Boissoneault smithsonianmag.com April 4, 2018
Asbury Park, New Jersey 1970
The 1970 Asbury Park race riots were a major civil disturbance. It occurred in Asbury Park, New Jersey between July 4 and July 10, 1970. There had been a lack of jobs, recreational opportunities, and decent living conditions for the 30% African American population. There was seven days of rioting, looting, and destruction. One hundred and eighty people were injured. The shopping district of the west side neighborhood of Asbury Park was completely destroyed.
Posted on blackpast.org
July 1, 2018 Contributed by: Maritza Fernandez
This conversation will feature two of our professors, Drs. Jeffrey Carroll (Political Science) and David Contosta (History). They will share their personal perspectives regarding the foundation of our country through the current times and an examination of power in protests, looking back to the Civil Rights Movement and Black Liberation Movements, and our current situation.
Miami (Liberty City) Riots, 1980
In December 1979, a number of white Miami-Dade (Florida) police officers were in a high-speed chase of African America motorist Arthur McDuffie. Police reports said that the chase ended when McDuffie crashed his motorcycle resulting in his death. However, coroner reports said that the cause of death was not consistent with a motorcycle crash. Later, a responding officer following the chase testified that there was no crash and said that the officers had beaten McDuffie to death with their flashlights. Despite the coroner report and the testimony from witnesses, an all-white jury concluded the trial on May 17, 1980 with the acquittal of all officers involved in the case. Residents of mostly African American Liberty City, home to half of the city’s black and Afro-West Indian residents, took to the streets in protests. Things soon turned violent as some began throwing objects at passing white motorists. By nightfall the violence escalated into a full blown riot. Motorists fleeing their vehicles were attacked. The riot moved into neighboring white business districts and outside the headquarters of the Dade County Department of Public Safety. Leaders from the Miami-Dade County National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and national leaders such as Jesse Jackson were unsuccessful in halting the violence. The Florida National Guard was then called in. By May 20th order was restored. Ten blacks and eight whites had died. More than 800 people had been arrested and the property damage was in excess of $80 million dollars.
November 14, 2009 Contributed by: Coley Vietenhans blackpast.org
Los Angeles 1992
The 1992 Los Angeles riots were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County, California in April and May 1992. Unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29. This was after a trial jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) of the charge of usage of excessive force in the arrest and beating of Rodney King, which had been videotaped and widely viewed on TV. The attack on Reginald Denny occurred during these riots, when Denny, a white construction truck driver, was beaten nearly to death by a group of black men. This attack was captured on video by a news helicopter and it was broadcast live on television. Four residents of South Central Los Angeles, Bobby Green Jr., Lei Yuille, Titus Murphy, and Terri Barnett had been watching this transpire on television and they came to Denny's aid. All four people who helped rescue him were African Americans. Green, also a truck driver, took over at the wheel and drove Denny to a hospital. Those who helped Denny received recognition by the City of Los Angeles and others.
In 1964 an Urban League survey ranked Los Angeles as the most desirable city for African Americans to live in. In 1965 the city burst into flames during one of the worst race riots in the nation's history. How the city came to such a pass--embodying both the best and worst of what urban America offered black migrants from the South--is the story told for the first time in this history of modern black Los Angeles.
The Los Angeles riots shattered Korean immigrants naive belief in the American dream. As many as 2,300 Korean shopkeepers lost their lifetime investments in one day.
The Trayvon Martin Case 2012 - Peaceful Protests
On the evening of February 26, 2012, African American teenager Trayvon Martin, wearing a hooded sweatshirt, was on his way back from a trip to the store, Martin was spotted by George Zimmerman, a partly white and partly Latino neighborhood watch captain who called 911 to report a “suspicious person” . Although instructed by the 911 operator to stay in his car, Zimmerman, who was armed with a handgun, approached Martin. After a brief confrontation, Zimmerman fatally shot the unarmed teenager. Zimmerman claimed self-defense. Public outcry began to grow, and less than a month later, Sanford Police Chief Bill Lee stepped down amid criticism over his handling of the case. In March, about one month after the shooting, President Barack Obama commented on the matter. “If I had a son, he’d look like Trayvon. When I think about this boy, I think about my own kids.” On April 11, 2012, George Zimmerman turned himself in after being charged with second-degree murder. Zimmerman was found not guilty on July 13, 2013. Amid memories of the Rodney King trial aftermath, public service announcements discouraging violence ran on radio and television stations around the country in the lead-up to the Zimmerman verdict. Afterwards there were a number of mostly peaceful demonstrations in several cities across the country. The “hoodie” sweatshirt became a key symbol of the protests. The tragic death of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin became the first catalyst for the national Black Lives Matter movement.
The murder of unarmed teenager Trayvon Martin and the subsequent trial and acquittal of his assailant, George Zimmerman, sparked a passionate national debate about race and criminal justice in America that involved everyone from bloggers to mayoral candidates to President Obama himself. With increased attention to these causes, from St. Louis to Los Angeles, intense outrage at New York City's Stop and Frisk program and escalating anger over the effect of mass incarceration on the nation's African American community, the Trayvon Martin case brought the racialized nature of the American justice system to the forefront of our national consciousness.
Pursuing Trayvon Martin explores the historical implications of the fatal shooting of the unarmed black teen, Trayvon Martin, by George Zimmerman, in a gated community in Sanford, Florida on February 26, 2012. Possibly the first book to explore the case, it will make an important contribution as a source providing important analyses from which later scholars might draw and which will provide a context for understanding many of the issues involved in this case.
In Missouri in 2014 two incidents triggered peaceful protests and riots there and elsewhere. In Ferguson, Missouri there were violent protests. They began on August 9, 2014, after the fatal shooting of Michael Brown, an unarmed African American teenager by a white police officer. Then the shooting death of African American Antonio Martin, eighteen years old, occurred on December 23, 2014, in Berkeley, Missouri. near St. Louis. Martin was shot by a white Berkeley police officer when Martin pulled a gun on him. These shootings sparked protests in the St. Louis area and other cities in the U.S.
To the dismay of many, gun violence against youth be it at school or on the streets is a common theme in American culture. As the occurrences of these gruesome shootings become more frequent, Americans grow even more anesthetized to the events.
On August 9, 2014, Michael Brown, an unarmed African American high school senior, was shot by Officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson, Missouri. For months afterward, protesters took to the streets demanding justice, testifying to the racist and exploitative police department and court system, and connecting the shooting of Brown with the deaths of Trayvon Martin, Eric Garner, and other young black men at the hands of police across the country.
Baltimore was roiled by weeks of tense protests after the April 19 death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of a spinal cord injury while in police custody. Gray was arrested for allegedly possessing a switchblade, but Mosby said Gray's knife wasn't a switchblade and was therefore legal. According to a timeline provided by Mosby, Gray fled at the sight of police presence in an area of town known for drug dealing. Police pursued Gray, eventually catching up and restraining him on the ground. Officers then arrested Gray after they noticed a knife on him. Gray's death and the protests it inspired once again placed a national spotlight on issues of race, justice, police brutality, and the deep distrust between minority communities and their local governments. The protests came about almost immediately following Gray's death, as demonstrators marched to demand answers for what happened to the 25-year-old and to protest police brutality, of which Baltimore has a troubling history.
Five Days: The Fiery Reckoning of an American City by Wes Moore, Erica L. Green
A kaleidoscopic account of five days in the life of a city on the edge, told through seven characters on the frontlines of the uprising that overtook Baltimore and riveted the world. When Freddie Gray was arrested for possessing an "illegal knife" in April 2015, he was, by eyewitness accounts that video evidence later confirmed, treated "roughly" as police loaded him into a vehicle. By the end of his trip in the police van, Gray was in a coma he would never recover from. In the wake of a long history of police abuse in Baltimore, this killing felt like a final straw--it lead to a week of protests and then five days described alternately as a riot or an uprising that set the entire city on edge, and caught the nation's attention.
Worldwide protests Riots, Looting in the United States
On May 25, 2020, George Floyd, a 46-year-old African American man, was arrested for allegedly trying to pass a counterfeit bill in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Floyd died after white police officer Derek Chauvin had his knee on his neck for almost nine minutes. Floyd was already handcuffed and lying face down on the street. Two other officers further restrained Floyd and a fourth prevented onlookers from intervening . Floyd had repeatedly said “I can’t breathe”. Floyd's death has been compared to that of Eric Garner, a African American man who was arrested for allegedly illegally selling cigarettes in New York City in 2014 and who also repeated "I can't breathe" ,while in a fatal chokehold. Floyd's death triggered demonstrations and protests in more than 75 US cities and worldwide. There were peaceful protests and demonstrations. But in many cities there riots, fires and looting, This included the cities of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Minneapolis and Saint Paul. This was at the same time as the CO-VID -19 Pandemic which made circumstances additionally dangerous. The wearing of masks and social distancing rules in place were set aside by many people.
Black men and women are still dying across the country. The power that is American policing has conceded nothing.
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